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The expectation-confirmation model (Bhattacherjee, 2001)  is based on integrating the technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989)  with the expectation-confirmation theory  to understand users’ intention to continue using an information system (IS). The
AR is receiving much more attention, as seen in the increase in educational applications which provide interesting features, such as immersion, interaction and navigation. These are expected to improve students’ satisfaction and learning
According to Azuma , AR technology has three properties:
1. Combines real and virtual objects in a real environment
2. Aligns real and virtual objects with each other
3. Runs interactively in real time
AR applications can be viewed using various devices, such as a see-through head mounted display (HMD), a computer, or a mobile device with one camera.
Augmented reality (AR) refers to technology that allows computer-generated virtual imagery which combines the real world with virtual worlds, enables interaction, and presents three dimensional objects
In the field of education, the recognition of learning style is important for both teachers and students. Fenrich (2006) states that instructional designers must consider learning styles when designing syllabi and curricular materials .
Augmented reality (AR) refers to technology that allows computer-generated virtual imagery which combines the real world with virtual worlds, enables interaction, and presents three dimensional objects .
Satisfaction is referred to as an affect and capture as a positive, indifferent, or negative feeling . Satisfaction intention suggests that higher (lower) user satisfaction means that it will be more (less) likely that users will have intention to use a system.
According to the cognitive dissonance theory (, ), users may experience cognitive dissonance if usefulness is disconfirmed during actual use. In order to avoid cognitive dissonance, users may adjust their perceptions of the perceived usefulness of a system to cope with what they feel about their use experience.
Numerous studies have applied the ECM to investigate IS continuance intention in different contexts. Kim (2010) integrate the ECM with the theory of planned behavior to predict a user’s continuance behavior toward mobile data service (MDS), where they find that user satisfaction, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, subject norms, and perceived behavioral control significantly in
Shiue and Hsu (2017) investigated the effectiveness of a digital game related to correct medication usage. The results showed that game-based learning significantly enhanced students’ knowledge and abilities related to correct usage .
Chi evaluated the effects of the HSP program in Taiwan as it related to enhancing students’ health knowledge, and the results indicated that implementation of correct medication usage through the HPS program had significantly enhanced students’ knowledge and abilities related to correct medication usage .
According to Chi’s study on correct medication usage, there are five core abilities related to correct medication usage, including the ability to clearly express personal conditions to one’s physician, the ability to check information on medicationpackages, the ability to correctly take medications as prescribed, the ability to be the one’s own master when taking medication
Collaborative technologies have drawn much attention from educational scholars, as they can provide students with a platform on which they can discuss, exchange, and share their opinions and ideas, as well as construct their own knowledge collaboratively.
In sum, the main proposition of the TTF model is that a user with greater support from a given technology with regard to a focal task will have better perception of the task-technology fit, as well as of the use of this technology (Lee & Lehto, 2013).
The TTF model consists of four major constructs, namely task characteristics, technology characteristics, task-technology fit, and technology utilization (Lin & Huang, 2008).
Goodhue and Thompson (1995) proposed the task-technology theory (TTF) to fill in the gap between user acceptance towards IT systems and the ability of the system to support a focal task, in order to provide a more precise explanation of the links between work-related factors and IT support.
Gagne and Deci (2005) stated that “intrinsic motivation involves people doing an activity because they find it interesting and derive spontaneous satisfaction from the activity itself; in contrast, extrinsic motivation requires an instrumentality between activity and some separable consequences such as tangible or verbal rewards, so satisfaction comes not from the activity itself but r
As proposed by Deci and Ryan (1985), the Self Determination Theory (SDT) posits that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are the core elements which can explain why people carry out an activity.
The ECM posits that the user’s level of satisfaction, the extent of their confirmed expectation, and their post-adoption expectations (perceived usefulness) have direct or indirect effects on their intention to continue IT usage.